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Lecture Series in Ancient Indian Sciences
Lecture 46
Relevance of Panini to Language Technology
Amba Kulkarni
Panini consolidated all the earlier grammars for Sanskrit and presented a concise and almost exhaustive descriptive coverage of the then prevalent Sanskrit language. This grammar is in the form of aphorisms -- around 4000 divided into 8 chapters of 4 sections each and known as “Ashtaadhyaayi”. “Panini's grammar is universally admired for its insightful analysis of Sanskrit”(Kiparsky, 2009). In spite of being a grammar basically written for Sanskrit, it provides many ingenious concepts for language analysis, which are universal in nature. The माहेश्वर suutras form an integral part of the Ashtaadhyaayi. It consists of 14 suutras. Each sutra has one or more phonological segments terminated by a marker (अनुबन्ध or इत्). Panini has used around 42 different subsets of phonemes in the Ashtaadhyaayi. Though a substantial part of the Ashtaadhyaayi deals with the rules related to morphology, phonology and sandhi, an important section of it deals with concepts important from the language analysis point of view. Two of the important sections are those related to kaaraka and samaasa. It is the kaaraka - vibhakti mapping that provides a bridge between semantics and syntax.

What we learn from the way Panini framed the rules is to look for where the information is coded. The very fact that language allows absence of pronoun triggers that it is the verbal suffix which codes the kaaraka relation and not the nominative case.

Many a times a language has redundant information. It is necessary to identify which part of it is redundant and which part of the coding is genuine. The question “where does a language code information?”, thus helps us in ruling out the redundant information which helps one to build a NLP system that is more reliable and robust.

The greatness of Panini lies in “identifying exactly how much information is coded and then giving it a semantic interpretation” (suutras 1.4.23 - 1.4.55). This level of semantics is the one which is achievable / reachable through the grammar rules and the language string alone. This puts an upper bound for the analysis, making it very clear what is guaranteed and what is not. We can extract only that which is available in a language string 'without any requirement of additional knowledge'. To give an analogy, one can not use low quality energy to do the high quality work.

It is the language convention which gives a license to not to code the information explicitly}. The implicit coding of the information may need extra processing for making such a knowledge explicit. It then becomes crucial for MT developers to know what is coded explicitly and what is coded implicitly. If the two languages have different language conventions, one needs to make implicit information explicit in other language. This may lead to unacceptable constructions, or even to a catastrophe, if not handled properly.

With the emergence of Linguistics, linguists had started recognizing the importance of Panini's grammar. And now with the advent of computer technology, computational linguists have started recognizing Panini as an information scientist. Thus we conclude that the information coding and flow of information are at the center of the Paninian analysis. The questions where does a language codes information, how much information does it code, and the manner in which it codes the information are the three dimensions or the parameters that are crucial in identifying the “true nature of the language”. These three parameters may be used to determine the syntactic divergence between the languages. And hence we claim that any grammar which is developed with the three questions in mind: where, how much and how the information is coded, would be truly in Paninian spirit.

All the above details are explained in the lecture with examples.
Lecture 45
A Scientific Vision of Panchikaranam - the Quintuplication in Vedanta
Swami Tattvavidananda Sarasvati
The great Seer Adi Sankaracharya has established an elaborate three-tier approach to Vedantic literature. The highest level comprises his commentaries on Upanishads, Brahma Sutras and Bhagavad Gita, which together are known as Prasthanatraya. The middle level involves various Prakaranas, where more elaborate explanations and analyses are to be found about different concepts and aspects in Vedanta. Below come the lower level covering various Strotras which are easily recited by the general public but contain all the Vedantic teaching in praise of Lord. Panchikaranam, which comes under the category of Prakaranas, thus belong to the middle level. Adi Sankaraacharya’s Panchikaranam together with Suresvaracharya’s Varttikam or explanation and elaboration of the subject provides a complete and easy understanding of the process of Quintuplication.

 The sound Om is the quintessence of the Vedas and reveals the Reality to those who are in search of it. The Brahman is the unmanifest seed of this universe. From this Brahman was born space with sound as its unique quality. Space manifested as wind, which has the unique quality of the sense of touch. The wind further manifested as the fire which has form and color. From fire came water with unique quality of taste. Then came the earth which has the unique quality of smell. The Cosmic Person with these five subtle elements, which evolve into gross elements, is the core of all living beings and the manifest universe. It has to be remembered that while the cause is always subtle, the effect is gross.

The wise refer to the process of Panchikaranam as follows: firstly the subtle elements starting with earth have to be divided into two equal parts. Then one half of every element has to be further subdivided into four equal parts. The four small parts of every element have to be sequentially distributed equally among the other four elements. Thus the gross space now has five parts, including four the four smaller parts of the other elements, beginning with the wind. This process repeats with the other elements. The quintuplicated elements and their elementals put together become the physical body of the Cosmic Person.

One of the most important methodologies to unfold the Reality is the Adhyatma- Adhibhuta-Adidaiva model. Adhyatma is the individual Soul or Jeevatma. Adhibhuta is all perishable objects that is matter. Adhidaiva is the shining Purusha representing the divine intelligence. The quintuplication is the last stage of this model of creation.

Unlike in modern science there is a perceiver and the perceived in Vedanta. The totality of everything perceived is matter and the totality of all who perceive is the mind. But the division between the matter and mind is unreal like the two poles of the same magnetic field. It is like a monolithic knowingness or awareness which appears as both matter and mind. It is beyond the limitations of time and space.  It is the very origin of time and space. It is the eternal Being which becomes this universe.
Lecture 44
Copenhagen the capital of Denmark witnessed hectic activity by thousands of scientists, bureaucrats, politicians, Heads of state and media of the world from 7th to 18th December 2009 to solve the problem of climate change and global warming.  Based on extensive work by thousands of scientists from all over the world, which has confirmed the phenomenon of rising global temperatures, raising sea levels and melting glaciers, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted disastrous consequences like acute water shortage for billions of people, floods, draughts, hurricanes, submergence of low lying countries, acidification of oceans, epidemics, mass migration etc., threatening the very life on the planet.

In spite of enormous preparatory work for years and the certainty of a gory future, governments could not reach an agreement at Copenhagen because of their conflicting interests and undue pressures from vested interests back home. While many of the developed countries have not kept up their promises of cutting down their carbon emissions, the clear polarization of developed and developing countries that was seen in Kyoto twelve years ago, has become hazy because four countries Brazil, South Africa, India and China (BASIC) have made great economic progress during these twelve years and found that tagging with other developing countries is not in their countries’ interest. Taking advantage of the situation, Developed countries, who are not eager to give up their luxurious lifestyles and cut their carbon emissions, have tried to split the developing countries by identifying the “most vulnerable nations” among them and fixing different degrees of carbon emission for different countries. For the most vulnerable nations, the emissions reductions by developed countries, currently on the negotiating table, are ‘too little too late’ to prevent dangerous global warming. If there are no drastic emission cuts from developed countries at least the vulnerable countries need money to prepare for the worst. Thus pathetically while discussion on carbon emissions has taken back seat, the focus shifted to the amount of finance the developed countries should provide to the developing countries for fighting the perils of climate change and global warming. Thus ended on dismal note the Copenhagen summit on which all the sensible people in the world were pinning hopes.

India has a population of 1.15 billion spread over roughly three million square kilometers making up for the highest population density of 1000+/ in the world, exceeding that of China. Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow and Kanpur figure in the top ten polluted cities by particulate matter (100 to 170 microgram/Cubic meter in 2004). While both China and US emit about 6000 metric tons of carbon dioxide, the per capita emission of the former is about 5 tons while that of the latter is about 20 tons.  India with a per capita of 1.16 tons emits a total of nearly 1,300 tons of CO2. That means if India ‘develops’ to China’s per capita of 5, it would emit 6500 tons of CO2 and if it ‘develops’ to US per capita of 20, it would emit a horrendous 26,000 tons!!

Under this scenario what are India’s options for a better climate? Should it force the developed countries to cut down their emissions? Should it continue with its so called development programs and assert its right to pollute itself dangerously? Should it beg for a bigger slice of climate fund to prepare for the worst or sensibly should it look back to the millennia old great ancient Indian culture and wisdom, which was once hailed by the entire world?  

Notwithstanding the overall global warming, there are large variations in regional climates ranging from Sahara to Antarctica. While conflicts on carbon emission will continue on global scale, each country can still work for a comfortable regional climate of its own. Thus we can create a better climate over the Indian landmass. This calls for a clear vision and stern action from the government side and awareness and mass movement from the people’s side. But governments and scientists obsessed with high technology cannot find solutions for the global warming. Only natural and simple solutions involving minimum technology can save us and the Mother Earth. India backed by its brilliant Vedic wisdom can be a world leader in fighting pollution.

The ancient Indian life style, customs and rituals were based on super scientific, holistic and above all eco-friendly practices. It is often asked if India was a great civilization going back to millennia how come it is so ‘under developed’.  Any sensible person will understand that if modern science and technology could bring the earth to the brink of disaster in just about 200 years, one could imagine what would have happened to Mother earth in five to ten thousand years if India opted for such development!!! We have to invoke this ancient wisdom, which has received severe battering by the invaders during the last thousand years, climaxed by the industrial revolution three centuries ago.
Now it appears that although difficult and painful, India has to
Give up the craze for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) through MNCs.
Give a pause to further industrial development, particularly of inessential
Promote traditional agriculture, forestry and livestock.
Apply controls on consumption of water and electricity
Make rural areas self sufficient (Gandhi’s Gram Swaraj).
Boycott and detest extravagance and affluence in shopping, entertainment, sports etc.
Cut production of LMVs and pool the resources to produce world class public transport system.
Introduce less complex educational systems.
Introduce Yoga and Naturopathy clinics in all villages to reduce dependence on complex and expensive medicare
Cut down on high profile, high tech scientific projects of questionable utility and concentrate on grass-root  level problems.
Let there be peace on earth, peace in the space, peace in the skies, peace with medicinal herbs,  peace with flora, peace in the universe, peace with all gods, peace, peace and peace everywhere.
Lecture 43

The science of Ayurveda, which deals with health, disease, diagnosis and cure of ancient India, is well known now all over the world. The  principal book of Ayurveda called Charaka Samhita, originally written by Agnivesha and the famous Arth Shastra of Koutilya, interestingly, carry information on a number of ‘Asavas’  or spirituous liquors of great medicinal value that are popular with kings as all as commoners. Kautilya’s description of liquors include Sura, Sveta sura, sahakara sura, Rasottara, Bijottara, Madhu, Arishtah etc. The Madyas mentioned in Charaka Samhita are sura, madira, jagalah,arishtah,saarkarah, pakvarasah, sitarasikah, gudah, surasavah,madhasavah, maireyah, dhatakyabishutah, amlakangikam etc.  Charaka Samhita explains the process of preparation of liquors in 26th Chapter and also describes the various ingredients.

Sage Atreya says that Sura is the best among those which relieve fatigue. He explains to his disciple Agnivesha that liquor can be prepared from grain, fruit, root, inner part, flower, trunk, leaf, bark and sugar. Kautilya explains the ingredients of different Asavas in the Chapter Suradhyaksha (2-25).

Kautilya states that the ‘aristahs’ are prescribed by physicians for curing different maladies. Some of the various Asavas and their utility in therapy based on Charaka Samhita are tabulated below:

Name of Liquor Therapeutic value
Sura Weakness, urine problem, dysnetry, piles
Madira Hiccough, Asthama, severe cold, cough, hard motion, loss of taste
Jagala Rheumatism, diarrhea, swelling, gout, tumor, indigestion
Arista Fevers, blood dysentery, loss of taste,
Sarkara Diseases of bladder, indigestion
Pakvarasa Good for digestion, cures phlegm, bad effects of consuming excess ghee
Sitarasika Throat obstructions, tumors, abdominal disorders, piles
Gandasura Problems of stool and gases
Maireya Good for heart , stimulates the action of stomach
Madhu Stimulates digestive system,  gives energy
Sauveerakatushodakam Cures heart diseases, drives away stomach worms
Tara  Amlakanjikam (Telugu name –Taravani) Fever control, cures hard motion, oozing wounds

The above information reveals the amazing wealth of Vedic Sciences and the manifold genius of ancient Indian Acharyas who did not leave any branch of science that could be of public interest. Our universities and national institutes of research will greatly benefit by taking up research in such projects, without destroying the Nature and environment.

Lecture 42


Dr. Mannem Murthy
It is well known in ancient India that human beings carry an AURA or bio-electromagnetic field, which of course is also present in every animate and inanimate object, as mentioned in the eleventh chapter of the Atharva veda as Divya kanti valaya or the divine circular light. While the strength of the Aura is proportional to the health, strength and purity of the individual, deficiencies can be inferred from the depletion and distortion of this Aura. According to Yogic perception the human body contains six major chakras or energy centers in the body starting from Mooladhara chakra or Root chakra at the base of the spine followed by Svadishthana chakra (Sex), Manipuraka chakra ( solar plexus chakra), Anaahata chkra ( heart ), Visuddhi chakra (throat),Ajna chakra (eye brow center) capped by Sahasrara chakra (crown). The charkas reflect the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual quality of the individual. In healthy individuals all the charkas are perfectly balanced and correctly awakened and energized.

From modern science we know that electromagnetic fields are all pervading in the Universe. Everything is electromagnetic in nature including light, earth, human beings, etc. In the electromagnetic spectrum there is a narrow visible range of 300 to 800 Hz bounded on one side by ultraviolet, X and gamma rays and microwaves and radio waves on the other. While life thrives on the positive nature of electromagnetism in the visible range, the lower and higher frequency fields are considered negative because of their adverse effect on life on earth in general and humans in particular. Man is under continual attack from electromagnetic fields radiating from power lines, household wiring, microwave ovens, computers, televisions, clock radios, cellular phones, electric blankets and other appliances. Researchers have correlated electromagnetic pollution with increases in cancer, birth defects, depression, learning disabilities, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Our body is made up of 33 trillion cells, which are working like magnetic needles possessing north and South Pole. These electromagnetic radiations disrupt the normal cellular function and biological processes of the body. This results in blockage and depletion of energy resulting in disease. While the earth is vibrating at 7.5 Hz and the cosmos at 14 Hz, we are all vibrating at more than 30Hz range, which is not a healthy sign. The reason for this lies in the Geopathic stress and the Electro stress. When the natural radiations, which rise up through the earth, are distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by subterranean running water, sewers, drains, certain mineral concentrations, fault lines, mining, foundations for tall buildings, quarrying, underground transport systems and underground cavities, Geopathic stress is caused. With advancing civilization man who was in natural and direct contact with the earth, started insulating himself from the earth using various synthetic materials leading to accumulation of Electro stress with the body becoming charged with static electricity allowing radiated electric fields to create unnatural weak electric currents within the body. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) stated that common exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from household electrical wires now produce unnatural weak electric currents between human cells.

Unfortunately, while these diseases were known to and handled easily in ancient India , most of these stress related diseases cannot be diagnosed by the modern medical practice. Research at the JAGAT JYOTHI FOUNDATION indicates that when we are exposed to these EMF radiations most of the charkas are depleted, resulting in chronic fatigue, memory loss, lack of focus and concentration, emotional disturbances and indecisiveness. A person with an excellent all round health will have a i) a strong root chakra, which gives physical energy to the body, ii) a healthy Solar Plexus chakra which gives emotional strength and iii) a healthy Ajna chakra, for correct decision making.

The author has invented a Universal Thermo Scanner which works on the molecular frequency. This instrument helps in identifying and quantifying the energy field of people, places, objects, plants, etc. It can measure the energies associated with various aforesaid chakras and also identify the various EMF radiations a person is being exposed to.

Over 100 case studies on different people in different professions who have been exposed to above experiments indicated major depletion in their energy levels (aura) resulting in fatigue, lack of enthusiasm and motivation, depression, mood swings and indecisiveness. We at our research center identify these radiations on the body. Help the person to identify or locate the source of exposure and to avoid such place. Then in 5-6 sittings we remove the unwanted radiation from the body, correct the charkas, and increase the energy levels there by bringing the person back to his normal vibratory levels, thus creating a sense of well being.
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