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Lecture Series in Ancient Indian Sciences
Lecture 21
Dr. Shamathakamani Narendran
Principal and Dean,
M.S.Ramaiah Medical College and Teaching Hospitals,Bangalore
Pregnancy is one of the greatest events in a woman's life. The artistry, the amazing accuracy and the awesome detail associated with the little life inside the womb can only be experienced by a mother. With the concept of small families all over the world, pregnancy has become not only very precious but also full of apprehension and fear.

With latest advances in obstetric field today one can plan to become pregnant when needed and take good care to have a normal child. In addition, the growth of the foetus right from conception to delivery can be mapped and visualized in such detail that one can know the sex of the baby and the development of its organs etc. during the period of pregnancy, giving great relief to the mother as well as the near and dear. But it is also true that the development of the baby is affected by several maternal as well as foetal factors. Hypertension, diabetes, malnutrition, chronic renal disease etc. can cause harmful effects on the foetus. Similarly chromosomal anomalies in the embryo and infections in the mother are known to cause several birth defects. Apart from these causes, tension, fear, anxiety and chronic stress in the mother can cause serious problems, resulting often in a poor outcome. It is now well recognised that stress causes psycho-neuro-immunological changes in the body leading to pregnancy complications ending in operative surgery. Hypersensitivity of the mother leads to intolerance to pain, requiring heavy dosage of painkillers, which are not safe for the unborn.

Yoga therapy is fast advancing as an effective tool in many physical and psychological disorders. There is enough proof available of the beneficial effects of yoga on the mind and body of the human beings. Many scientists have investigated the changes that take place in the human system at all levels by the practice of yoga and holistic living in the recent past all over the world. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (sVYASA), Bangalore , has evolved a simple and useful module of basic yoga practice for mothers-to-be and extensive research is going on in one of the local super speciality referral maternity hospitals.

However due to a lack of right exposure, there is still a lot of apprehension and fear in the minds of doctors and obstetricians, much more than the pregnant women themselves about yoga practice. It has to be mentioned here that yoga does not mean only some asanas or postures. Yogic practice or any type of ancient Indian health management always takes a holistic view of the human being in its totality. Unfortunately the overwhelming influence of western medicine on modern Indian women is such that they need counselling, coaxing and motivating to understand the easily and safely obtainable benefits from yoga. Yoga therapy has been tried in all most all the stress related conditions with remarkable benefits (Shamanthakamani, 2005a; Shamanthakamani 2005b).

The book on “Yoga for Pregnancy” (Shamanthakamani et al, 2004) comprehensively deals with medical facts about pregnancy, effects of stress on pregnancy, information about anatomical, physiological changes and adaptations to pregnancy and also complications that can arise such as Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), etc. It gives a complete knowledge of modified set of yoga practices including Asanas, Pranayama, Meditation Techniques, Relaxation Techniques, Mudras and Bandas as well as the dietary practices that can be practiced throughout pregnancy.

In conclusion it can be said with confidence that Yoga practices are safe, effective and beneficial and also help in easy delivery. People who are practicing modern medicine can undoubtedly provide a better quality healthcare to their patients by combining the ancient Indian practices with high-tech medicare.


Yoga for Pregnancy. 2004. Shamanthakamani,N., Nagarathna, R. and Nagendra,H.R. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana, Bangalore . 158 p.

Efficacy of yoga on pregnancy outcome. (2005a). Shamanthakamani. N .The Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine [JCAM], USA . Vol 2(2) pp 237-244

Efficacy of Yoga in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Doppler Study of Umbilical and Uterine Arteries. (2005b) The Journal of the Indian Medical Association [JIMA], India., 2005, Vol 103(1) pp 12-17.
Lecture 20
Prof. K.C.Sahu (Retd)
Indian Institute of Technology,
Powai, Mubai
The projected shortage non-renewable energy sources have prompted the scientific world to look for alternative sources. The most favoured among the non-conventional energies is the solar energy, which is endlessly received in immense quantities - more than 10,000 times the energy that humans currently use. Even a simple roof top solar installation on a 800 sq. ft. terrace would supply enough power to meet all normal domestic requirements of electricity in a modern Indian home. There are two techniques available to exploit Solar energy, which are i) the Solar Thermal (ST), which is the direct use of Solar heat and ii)the Solar Photo-Voltaic (SPV). While the former is time specific, the latter is apparently more advantageous. But the manufacture of PV-cells requires a number of hazardous materials including many chemicals and heavy metals besides the basic element Silicon, which poses a threat in different dimension that has never been hitherto focused.

Silicon, a Group IV element in the Periodic Table, is a semimetal that lies on the border of the metal-nonmetal boundary. Its toxicity (metabolic impact on the organic kingdom) is least known, unlike germanium, selenium and aluminum, the last of which is suspected to cause brain damage in human beings, which is known as Alzheimer's disease. The pollution index of a metal increases with its technophyllitic index, which is defined by the ratio of annual global production of a metal and its Clark value in the crust. Pollution index is defined by the amount of metal present in the environment (air, water, and soil) over and above the background values and this index naturally increases with increase of utility of the metal by the society.

Production of elemental silicon is chemical intensive, some 500 to 1000 chemicals are used for imprinting electronic circuits on silicon wafers. Production of a six inches silicon wafer results in 14 kg. of solid waste and 11,000 litres of waste water. Extensive use of silicon in most human activities is clearly envisaged in future. In all aspects, future human species will be virtually surrounded and soaked in silicon wafer to collect and process solar energy received in every possible occasion. That means an increased pollution index of hitherto unavailable elemental silicon. The unlimited stock of solar energy, abundance of silica on earth and ever-growing ceaseless demand of energy will compound exploitation and abuse.

Silicon, the dominant constituent in the lithosphere, was destined to trigger and evolve into a life system (Crains-Smith hypothesis). But carbon, although a minor constituent in the Crust and manifested in a variety of states (solid, liquid and gas as well as in a large number of organic polymers), reigned supreme, relegating silicon to the background in the developing units of life on the early earth. The anthropogenic rejuvenation of elemental silicon for tapping of solar energy and its introduction into the organic world that has never occurred in the history of this planet will be like bringing onto the stage the defeated competitor of carbon and only time will decide the consequence of such an invitation. As such, silicification of wood and organism in fossils clearly reveal the replacement zeal of silicon in the organic world. There have been spots of silicification in localized organs, such as development of silicosis in lungs, hardening of veins and bones where the impact is total destruction of the carbonaceous living tissues, albeit on micro scale. Cosmetic use of silicon in certain body parts has been found disastrous. It is too early to speculate on the impact of silicon entry into the organic world since no toxicity studies have yet been done for the element. However, its chemical similarity with Germanium, Selenium etc shows that silicon is potentially toxic and needs to be handled carefully. Some silicon compounds are also used as a rodenticide. If Selenium toxicity is a cause of dinosaurs' extinction, Jurassic Park is a chime of our death knell due to environmental silicon toxicity.

The technology of tapping solar energy therefore is in no way different from the introduction of atomic energy. The search for a clean source of energy for the future world should not end by inducting an element of societal disaster that goes against the spirit of the effort to increase the quality of life
Lecture 19
The Utility Of Astronomical Calculations In Dating The Indian Epics And Vedas
Shri. Ramulu Gajavada
2092 N. Casitas Ave.,
Altadena, CA 91001-5341
The Vedas are Divine revelations and were not composed or authored by mortal human beings and are Apaurusheya. The Vedas are eternal. However, it can be said that the wisdom and content of the Vedas are the Divine revelations to the ancient Rishis who must have lived at a finite period in the past and perhaps their period could be dated using numerous astronomical events mentioned in these epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, Itihasas and dating of them paves the way for dating the Vedas .

According to Dr. S. Kalyanaraman, there are over 72 astronomical references in Mahabharata . These astronomical events are verifiable with aid of computer simulations of the sky maps using the planetarium software. The simulated sky maps display the configuration of planets, stars and constellations at any place in the world on any particular day from 4,712 B.C. to 10,000 A.D.

The pioneering work in establishing the dates of events in the Mahabharata Itihasa was done by Dr. B. N. Narahari Achar using the modern planetarium software. Professor K .S. Raghvan has considered many of astronomical events as recorded by Veda Vyasa in his calculations using the Vedanga Jotishya Shastra and proposed the dates of the Mahabharata events. Accordingly, the Mahabharata war started on November 22, 3067 B.C. Dr. Achar says the planetarium software simulations shows a remarkable agreement of planetary configurations as described by Veda Vyasa on this day. Similarly, it was determined that the winter solstice occurred on January 13, 3066 B.C. and Bhishma passed away on January 17, 3066 B.C. The Mahabharata episodes occurred around 3000 B.C. or 5000 years ago. Winter solstice from the Mahabharata time has shifted from the month of Magaha to Margashirsha with a change of 69 days to the present. For a change of a day in the winter solstice 71.8 years are required. Therefore, 5,000 (69 x 71.8) years have lapsed since the Mahabharata episode. Similar calculations in respect of Ramayana face many problems due to various complexities.

Lokamayna Bala Gangadhar Tilak in his famous and celebrated book “The Artic Home in the Vedas ” says that the vernal equinox was in the constellation Orion or Mrig a during the period of early Vedic hymns, about 4,000 B.C. and receded to the constellation Krittikas , or Pleiades about 2,500 B.C. In conclusion, according to Bala Gangdhar Tilak , at the time of the Vedic hymns, vernal equinox was in the constellation Mriga or Orion, hence the winter solstice was in the constellation Meenam or Pisces

The earth's axis, which is inclined approximately 23 degrees to the plane of revolution, rotates approximately in a circle once in 46,000 years. This phenomenon is called “The Milankovich Cycle of Earth's Precession.” In this duration of 46,000 years, the sighting of a particular constellation takes place in different seasons. Presently, that is 2004 A.D., the winter solstice occurs in the constellation Orion. At the time of the Vedic hymns the winter solstice was in the constellation Pisces indicating that the earth's axis has rotated by a quarter of a circle, or 90 degrees, corresponding to 11,500 years before present or 9,500 B.C. Again, the Mahabharata took place during a period when the winter solstice was in the constellation Prajapati or Taurus, which is 30 degrees deviation from Mriga or Orion. The Mahbharata war took place 5,000 years ago with a change in position by a deviation of 30 degrees; therefore 90 degrees deviation from the constellation Pisces, indicate that the Vedic hymns are 15,000 years old or the Vedic age to be 13,000 B.C. However, the general consensus among Indian scholars is to consider the Harappa -Mohenjodaro culture, which dates back to 4,000 B.C., to be a later phase of the Vedic culture. This might very well place the age the Rgved a as early as 10,000 B.C.

But in the final analysis it has to be admitted that the Veda s offer amazing wealth of both scientific as well as spiritual wisdom for the proper development of human life and the time period of their revelations to the early Vedic Rishis is of no consequence.
Lecture 18
Prof. C. Santhamma
Founder and Secretary ESWARA
Jagadguru Sankaracharya of Puri Peetham, Sri Bharati Krishna Tirtha Swamiji has enunciated 16 Main Sutras and 13 Upa Sutras in the field of Vedic Mathematics. These Sutras are based on the concepts that the solution of any problem lies in the problem itself, every problem has certain symmetry or an asymmetry and that a problem can be solved by mental working with minimum complications etc.

The 16 Main Sutras : 1. Ekadhikena Purvena 2. Nikhilam 3. Urdhva – Tiryagbhyam 4. Paravartya Yojayet 5. Sunyam Samyasamuccaye. 6. Anurupye Sunyamanyat 7. Sankalana–vyavakalanabhyam 8. Puranapuranabhyam 9 Calana–Kalanabhyam 10. Yavadunam 11. Vyastisamastih 12. Sesanyankena Caramena 13. Sopantya–dvayamantyam 14. Ekanyunena Purvena 15. Gunitasamuccayah 16. Gunaka–samuccayah

The 13 Upa–Sutras : 1. Anurupyena 2. Sisyate Sesasamjnah 3. Adyamadyenantya–mantyena 4. Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat 5. Vestanam 6. Yavadunam Tavadunam 7. Yavadunam Tavadunikritya Varganca Yojayet 8. Antyayordasakepi 9. Antyayoreva 10. Samuccayagunitah 11. Lopanasthapanabhyam 12. Vilokanam 13. Gunitasamuccayah Samuccayagunitah.

The work is divided into 7 Main Headings

I) Multiplication (numbers and polynomials)
II) Division (numbers and polynomials)
III) Equations – Simple, Multiple, Simultaneous, Quadratic Simultaneous Quadratic, Cubic and higher order. Squares, Cubes and Higher expansions, Square roots, Cube roots and Higher order roots.

All the above details are already published in 4 volumes.

IV) Recurring Decimals & Auxiliary Fractions and HCF
V) Divisibility – Simple and Complex Multiplex Osculators
VI) Applications of the sutras in the study of Power Series (e x , log x, Trigonometric expressions etc) and
VII) in the study of the Solutions of Linear and Non – linear differential, Partial Differential and Integral calculus.

From a comparative study of the techniques based on Vedic Sutras with those of modern mathematics, it is clearly shown that many mathematical problems can be solved with ease and elegance, using Swamiji's principles of Vedic Mathematics. Computerisation of the techniques based on these Sutras is in progress
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