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Lecture Series in Ancient Indian Sciences
Lecture 25
Panini, the ancient grammarian of Sanskrit language produced a system of generative grammar around 7 th Century B.C. near Takshashila (the modern Baluchistan). A monumental masterpiece, Panini's Grammar known as Astadhyayi , is profusely praised by Western and Eastern Scholars as Summum Bonum of human intellectual achievement, ever done in the world. In a system of Sanskrit texts the whole of Sanskrit language has been formally encapsulated based on “generative” process of producing all the possible words in all their conjugate forms of classical Sanskrit language, with extension of Vedic Sanskrit language. This system of 5 texts comprise of Astadhyayi (rules of generative grammar), Dhathupathamu (roots of verbs), Ganapathamu (list of groups), Lingaanusasana (Masculine and Feminine Genders) and Unadikosa (stem - beginning and end of a word).

The modern Artificial Intelligence, a branch of computer science research deals with subjects related to Knowledge Representation and Natural Language Processing. The natural languages such as English, Telugu or Hindi are not formal in their grammar and structure and therefore ambiguous and context sensitive. This makes it very difficult for them to be processed in a machine i.e., a computer system. Rigid structure and grammar that makes possible formalism are the essential requirements for processing the natural language on a computer system, to overcome at least partly, the problems of context sensitivity and ambiguity.

Sanskrit language, as the name indicates, is not a common language or Prakrut. It is refined, processed and formalized through grammar and therefore called Sanskrit which means literally “processed”, “refined” or “formalized”. Panini's Grammar offers an almost formal, highly comprehensive generative grammar for Sanskrit language, thereby making it amenable for machine processing by a computer system.

In this lecture, the unique and extraordinary characteristics of Panini's Grammar of Sanskrit are brought out. The generative processes of character string transformations by rigid rules, which finally give rise to various conjugate forms of nouns and verbs in Sanskrit language, starting from the roots and basic suffixes – are all clearly explained from the fundamental sounds and characters. How these processes of Siddhi or production of conjugate forms of words from their roots can be computerized using modern programming language are also explained. A patented technique of converting the Sutra or a Rule of Panini's Grammar into a program or procedure in a modern programming language like “C”, is also explained.

By implementing the computerized Algorithms equivalent to Panini's Sutras or Rules in a computer system, it is possible to produce the Object Oriented Knowledge Representation in “Frames” used in Artificial Intelligence. Once the knowledge is extracted from sentence, it can be represented in a frame in an object attribute structure, which can later be utilized for a variety of purposes such as machine translation.
Lecture 24
Nanduri Sai Prasad
We all believe that present man evolved from the Ape, based on the evolutionary theory of Darwin . At the same time, we also observe different personalities, or individuals, though living in the same environment and society, did not evolve to the same degree. We see, one is wicked and does not hesitate to cheat, or even kill, another for a gain, while another person is magnanimous and showers love even on the enemy. One is strikingly rich while the other is a beggar through out his life. This behavioral variation and duality in Nature is one of the age old paradoxes that could not be resolved by the social scientists. Ancient Indian sciences and philosophy have answers to all these riddles in the form differently evolved Souls that dictate the personality of a man.

Human beings can be broadly divided into two categories: the evolving and the evolved. The five-sensory personality always seeks external power to control the environment and the people within the zone of his influence. Money and power have become the symbols of this external superiority. There is another type of person, the intellectual personality, who can feel the intense internal power, which is nothing but energy of his Soul. He is full of love and wisdom which he shares with others. For example, Jesus and Mahatma Gandhi prayed for mercy for those who inflicted injuries on them, representing evolved Souls.

Only with a physical body and a personality, one can feel anger, fear, hatred, vengeance, sorrow, shame, regret, indifference, cynicism and loneliness, but not the Soul. Love, compassion and wisdom do not belong to the personality. They are experiences of the Soul. The five-sensory personality has to evolve into an intellectual personality. This may not happen during one lifespan and might take number of incarnations depending on when he gets the awareness. Each personality, consciously or unconsciously, contributes to the evolution of its Soul through different incarnations. During each incarnation, the Soul creates a different personality and acquires a suitable physical body.

At the beginning of creation, all human beings are full of consciousness and energy. Man is blessed with five senses and intellect, and is the ultimate in creation. Because of free will, sin and virtue are dawn on humanity creating different personalities. Only an intellectual person is aware that his personality and its body are temporary aspects of the Soul. When they served their function, at the end of one's life, the Soul releases them. The physical body dies out, but the eternal Soul incarnates another body. At the end of many such incarnations, after balancing its negative and positive energies, it returns to its natural state of full energy.

The energy balancing act goes on according to the Law of Karma, analogous to the Third Law of Motion of Newton. There will be a reaction for every action. For example, a person gains wealth by deceiving another person. This creates a loss of energy, and this imbalance of energy can be balanced only when another person exploits him for gain of wealth. Similarly, if one inflicts pain to another person, the loss of energy can be balanced only when the person experiences similar pain he inflicted. This energy balancing goes on through several incarnations, with ups and downs. When the five-sensory personality becomes aware of the purpose of his life and the nature of his Soul through its journey, it will be in a position to clearly understand different events of its life and relate them to the energy dynamics of the Soul. When this Soul attains its full energy there will be no more incarnations.
Lecture 23
Indian Institute Of Chemical Technology (CSIR)
Most of the Indian Systems of medicine are based the traditional concepts of disease identification and their relation to the physico-chemical properties of medicines, which are prepared with highest standards of quality control and ethics. Handed down through centuries of study and practice, except some, the present day practioners are fully non-conversant of the philosophical principles behind these therapies. It is felt that the scientific basis and the rationality of these systems are difficult to be equated or explained in terms of modern terminology and scientific parameters. This emphasizes the need of a tool that can translate the traditional terminology and properties to be explains in modern physico chemical properties.

There is a need for standardization and quality control of the preparation of various herbal, mineral or herbo-mineral products so that their traditional efficiency is maintained. As the principles and properties of the medicines mentioned in the traditional texts will be considered as standard, the modern methods of quality control should also take them in to consideration while assessing the quality of the traditional medicines with out deviating from the basic philosophy. Hence standardization of traditional medicines prepared by traditional methods and protocols and their standardization by modern methods with out any role of traditional properties and terminology, which is in practice now cannot be considered authentic as two different protocols cannot be used for the same purpose.

A modern instrumental method entitled HERBOPRINT TM using a chromatographic technique has been developed for the standardization of the above purpose. This helps to standardize the medicines based on the traditional principles and properties as mentioned in the traditional texts using modern scientific tools and terminology. When these medicines are analyzed using the method of chromatographic fingerprinting, the generalization developed has helped in understanding the inherent science built in the basic concepts of Ayurveda, Siddha and other traditional Indian medicines.

This unique tool is also able to correlate the pathological conditions of biological samples like blood to diagnose the disease holistically following the traditional parameters. The technique not only facilitates the assessment of the disease status and selection of proper medicine to cure the ailment but also provides a method for quality control of traditional medicines and put the traditional philosophies on modern scientific footing, for the benefit of mankind.
Lecture 22
Retd. Dy. Director General,
Geological Survey of India , Bangalore
Founder and Secretary ESWARA
Relativity and Quantum Physics ushered in an era of a new mode of knowledge. The earlier age of experimentation and verification of results by the senses has now given place to intuitive knowledge through esoteric mathematics. This is bringing the scientist closer to truths behind apparent phenomena. As a result, he now seems to be marching towards the Vedantic sage who has already preceded him in his long quest for the ultimate Truth. The material benefits of quantum mechanics in various fields such as solid state matter, metals, magnetism, electrical conductivity and so on have been immense. But the impact of quantum and particle physics on our psychological life promises to be even more powerful and profound. Quantum physics demonstrates that matter is conscious, that a unitive consciousness is the foundation of all phenomena and that our subjective consciousness determines our perception of external reality. At the same time particle physics asserts that there is no such thing as individuality isolated from the rest of the universe, that there is only an overwhelming interconnectedness of all phenomena, events and entities founded on a fundamental unity at a deeper level. All these are of course not new to Vedanta but yet they do deserve to be acclaimed as rediscoveries quite original in their own right because modern science has laid a sound rational foundation for these ancient truths. It is entirely a subjective world of external reality as propounded by quantum mechanics. However, if this subjectivity promotes division rather than healthy diversity, it will come into conflict with oneness. In this sense quantum mechanics on the one hand and particle physics on the other may present an antinomy - an antinomy that can only be harmonised through a purification of mind, intellect and heart.

Physics and Biology are converging on the common ground of consciousness, which seems to be the real driving principle behind all life processes. Biologists are now looking at cells, tissues, organs and in fact whole organisms not merely in their biological identity but also as distinct energy fields. This is to be regarded as a great leap in the right direction as these fields are subtler than matter and ought therefore be nearer to the truth. Although like Vedanta, the New Physics has also arrived at consciousness as the substratum of the phenomenal world, there seems to be a certain lack of clarity in its perception of this principle. It seems to view consciousness as an undifferentiated wholeness, which is not quite the case. Science is as yet a long way from realising that consciousness actually consists of an entire hierarchy of 'planes and levels' in an ascending scale between gross matter at the base and pure Spirit at the summit. These planes and levels in fact correspond to other worlds of matter-- matter subtler than our own--each of these worlds peopled by its own beings. These kingdoms of subtle matter evidently surpass our 'understanding' and can only be experienced. Is the Scientist then ready for this great adventure? In any case, it is decidedly a momentous turning point for science which will be called upon to turn more and more 'other- worldly'. It should be a safe bet that science will never be the same again!
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